Occupational Health and Safety Risk Assessment and Management

Occupational Health and Safety Risk Assessment and Management

Occupational Health and Safety Risk Assessment and Management2024-02-21T15:37:34+00:00

Understanding Occupational Health Risk Assessment

Occupational health and safety (OSH) risk assessment is a crucial process for identifying, evaluating, and controlling risks in the workplace to prevent work-related injuries and illnesses.¹ It forms part of occupational health assessment and is a cornerstone of effective OSH management systems, ensuring workplace safety and health for workers.

Steps in Occupational Health Risk Assessment

The OSH risk assessment process typically involves the following steps:

  • Risk Identification: Identify potential risks in the workplace, considering physical, ergonomic, biological, and psychosocial hazards.
  • Risk Evaluation: Assess the likelihood and severity of harm that each risk poses to workers.
  • Risk Control: Implement appropriate control measures to eliminate or minimise the risk associated with each hazard.
  • Monitoring and Review: Regularly monitor the effectiveness of control measures and review the risk assessment periodically to ensure its accuracy and relevance.

Types of Occupational Health Risk Assessment Tools

Various tools and techniques can be used to conduct OSH risk assessments,² including:

  • Checklists: Structured checklists provide a systematic approach to identifying hazards and evaluating risks.
  • Observation: Observing workers and their work environment can reveal potential hazards and unsafe practices.
  • Interviews and Surveys: Consultations with workers can provide valuable insights into hazards and risk perceptions.
  • Specialist Assessments: For complex hazards, specialist assessments, such as noise level measurements or ergonomic evaluations, may be necessary.

Occupational Health Risk Assessment Example

In a manufacturing setting, a risk assessment might identify noise from machinery as a hazard. Evaluating the noise level and potential hearing damage risk would lead to control measures such as providing hearing protection, implementing noise reduction measures, or limiting exposure time.

Occupational Health Risk Assessment Management

OSH risk assessment is not a standalone process; it should be integrated into overall OSH management.³ This involves:

  • Risk Assessment Policy: Establishing a clear policy outlining the purpose, scope, and responsibilities for risk assessments.
  • Training and Competency: Ensuring those conducting risk assessments have the necessary training and competency.
  • Communication and Consultation: Effectively communicating risk assessment findings and involving workers in the process.
  • Documentation and Record-keeping: Maintaining records of risk assessments for future reference and auditing.

Benefits of Occupational Health Risk Assessment

OSH risk assessment offers numerous benefits, including:

  • Preventive Measures: Identifying and controlling hazards upfront prevents work-related injuries and illnesses.
  • Legal Compliance: Ensuring compliance with OSH regulations and reducing legal risks.
  • Cost Savings: Preventing injuries and illnesses reduces direct costs (compensation, medical expenses) and indirect costs (productivity loss, absenteeism).
  • Improved Worker Health and Well-being: A safer and healthier work environment promotes worker well-being and morale.
  • Enhanced Organisational Reputation: A commitment to OSH demonstrates an organisation’s care for its employees and enhances its reputation.


Occupational health and safety risk assessment is essential for safeguarding workers’ health and well-being while contributing to organisational success. By systematically identifying, evaluating, and controlling hazards in the workplace, organisations can prevent work-related injuries and illnesses, promote a healthy work environment, and reap the benefits of a safe and productive workforce.

What are some examples of potential hazards in the workplace?2023-12-19T14:59:59+00:00

Physical hazards (slips, trips, falls, machinery), ergonomic hazards (awkward postures, repetitive movements), biological hazards (viruses, bacteria), chemical hazards (toxic substances), psychosocial hazards (stress, burnout).

What are some specific tools I can use for hazard identification and evaluation?2023-12-19T15:06:27+00:00

Hazard identification checklists specific to your industry, JSA (Job Safety Analysis) forms, walkthroughs and observations, worker interviews and surveys, risk matrices.

Do I need to involve workers in the risk assessment process?2023-12-19T15:07:38+00:00

Yes, worker involvement is crucial. Their firsthand knowledge and experience can help identify hazards and develop effective control measures.

What are some examples of control measures for different types of hazards?2023-12-19T15:08:34+00:00

Engineering controls (machine guards, ventilation systems), administrative controls (work procedures, safe work practices), personal protective equipment (PPE).

What are the legal requirements for risk assessment in the UK?2023-12-19T15:09:27+00:00

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 require employers to conduct risk assessments to identify and control hazards.

How can risk assessments save my business money?2023-12-19T15:10:48+00:00

Preventing injuries and illnesses reduces associated costs like compensation, medical expenses, and productivity losses.

How can occupational health and safety risk assessment improve worker morale?2023-12-19T15:12:13+00:00

A safe and healthy work environment shows employees that their well-being is valued, leading to improved morale and increased job satisfaction.

What is the difference between occupational health and safety risk assessment and general risk assessment?2023-12-19T14:57:43+00:00

Occupational health risk assessments specifically focus on hazards that can harm workers’ health, like noise, chemicals, or stress, while general risk assessments encompass all types of hazards, including physical and environmental.

Who is responsible for conducting occupational health and safety risk assessments?2023-12-19T14:57:08+00:00

Employers are ultimately responsible for ensuring risk assessments are conducted, though they may delegate the task to qualified safety professionals or external consultants.

How often should risk assessments be conducted?2023-12-19T14:58:43+00:00

The frequency depends on the nature of the work and the associated hazards. It’s recommended to review assessments regularly, at least annually, or whenever significant changes occur in the workplace or work processes.

  1. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Managing risks and risk assessment at work [online] Available at: https://www.hse.gov.uk/simple-health-safety/risk/index.htm [Accessed 7 December 2023].
  2. British Occupational Hygiene Society (BOHS) – Exposure Assessment Tools [online] Available at: https://www.bohs.org/information-guidance/technical-guidance/ [Accessed 7 December 2023].
  3. Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) – Managing Occupational Health and Wellbeing [online] Available at: https://iosh.com/employees/awareness-courses/managing-occupational-health-and-wellbeing/ [Accessed 7 December 2023].

Speak to an Occupational Health professional today.

Article fact-checked and approved by Dr. Amun Kalia and Dr Deryk Waller

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